European contact with these native groups commenced i n , when Simon Fraser camped among bands occupying the Fraser River V a l l e y. Summary data from t h i s s t a t i o n are presented i n table 1. Considerable l o c a l v a r i a -t i o n did occur; there i s no firm evidence of stagnant i c e deposits i n the Upper Hat Creek Valley f i l l i n g the shallow basin with a p r o g l a c i a l lake of any appreciable s i z e or duration Aylsworth The settlement, or s i t e , forms a main unit of synthesis i n the study of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement systems. The scope of “middle-range theory” and i t s r o l e i n contemporary archaeological research has been summarized by Binford The empirical v a l i d i t y of each s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s also examined by a series of Kruskal-Wallis tests applied to the debitage and tools as well as a set of general l i t h i c assemblage a t t r i b u t e s. Upper Hat Creek Valley sampling frame for archaeological survey.

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This point i s elaborated below. Processing locations were usually situated away from the r i v e r shore on adjacent 98 banks or terraces, depending on l o c a l topography. Microsoft Office PowerPoint for Windows. GI EeRj 63 85 I t has demonstrated that technological patterning i s observable at the i n t e r s i t e l e v e l and that t h i s can be accounted f o r i n terms of sub-sistence-settlement a c t i v i t i e s.

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Rather, they are r e f l e c t e d by material products of human behavior that have entered i n t o the archaeological ver. Research with the goal of explanation of c u l t u r a l systems and processes must, then, be ‘framed i n such a way that edhck t o t a l range of types of component s i t e s i s examined. My debt to him i s a great one.

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These s e t t l e -ment locations may have been reoccupied each f a l las they were generally constructed near deer fences Teit The douglas f i r – s p i r e a – b e a r b e r r y community see fig u r e 17 that forms an edaphic climax r e s t r i c t e d to steep talus slopes with a rock rubble matrix. A continental climate p r e v a i l s throughout the year; generally warm summers and cold rigorous winters r e s u l t i n a sharp d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of seasonal temperatures.


At such low rates of coverage, i t i s important to note that the sampling f r a c t i o n i s not as c r i t i c a l as i s the absolute number of c l u s t e r units sampled Asch ; Cowgill ; True and Matson During l a t e A p r i l and at various times i n t o the summer, various roots and stems began to be obtainable. The combined information was then used as a basis for deriving s p e c i f i c expectations of the Upper Hat Creek Valley archaeological record.

Undoubtedly, upland areas such as the Upper Hat Creek Valley must have been i c e – f r e e considerably e a r l i e r than t h i s date but an accurate estimate would require d e t a i l e d l o c a l study. Roots were exploited during two main c o l l e c t i n g seasons: Dolly ver. Salvelinus malmaRainbow trout Salmo g a i r d n e r iMountain whitefish Prosopium w i l l i a m s o n iCutthroat trout Salmo c l a r k ver. possibly B r i d g e l i p sucker Catostomus columbianus.

C u l t u r a l depressions are non-natural depressions having an ovalc i r c u l a r or rectangular plan. Edyck i s contemporaneous with volcanic ash layers probably containing Mount Mazama tephra deposited at approximately B. The empirical v a cacebook i d i t y of each s i t e c l a s s i f i c facsbook t i o n i s also examined by a series of Kruskal-Wallis tests applied to the debitage and tools as well as a set of general l i t h i c assemblage a t t r i b u t e s.

No trees are present i n the undisturbed areas of the community.

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By v i r t u e of being r e s t r i c t e d to t h i s zone, these investigations tended to emphasize housepit settlements, the dominant type of archaeological s i t e located i n such an environmental s i t u a t i o n. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Debitage Densities: The immediate post-hypsithermal pollen zone i n the Finney Lake core i s characterized by alder Alnus as the dominant arboreal component.

On the basis of ethnoarchaeological research on IKung bushman settlement patterns, Yellen questions the empirical v a l i d i t y of the basic d i v i s i o n of settlements into base and ex t r a c t i v e camps as they are defined above.


A moist and cool climate probably s i m i l a r to present conditions prevailed during the early p o s t g l a c i a l period u n t i l 10, B.

Microsoft Powerpoint – Free These groups would e s t a b l i s h temporary hunting lodges covered with f i r branches rather than the usual mat or skin covering Teit While the o r i g i n a l “method” of c u l t u r a l ecology presented by Steward has been c r i t i c i z e d and modified consider-ably by recent human ecology studies Vayda and Rappaporta fundamental assumption of the e c o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s that the biophysical environment i s a structured phenomen-on, posing problems req u i r i n g behavioral responses by human groups i n order f o r them to e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e the environ-ment.

The shirtswho asked that his last name not be used.

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Upper Hat Creek Valley sampling frame for archaeological survey. Gerry Garcia, Jethro T u l land the R o l l i n g Stones helped me to maintain an optimistic perspective during the rather mundane aspects of v i i debitage analysis. Godfrey ; Guiguet Chapter II outlines the research design of the study, i n d i c a t i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l and methodological o r i e n t -ation used.

A l l of the above merit consideration as possible sources of i n t e r -assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y and thus complicate the nature of behavioral inferences that edkck be used to explain such patterning.